Unessay Project Overview

The goal for my groups’ unessay project was to analyze the changes on mural and wall art such as graffiti before the COVID-19 pandemic and comparing it to now in regards to political and social movements that have arisen through this pandemic. Our project was about discovering how the use of the art on Murals related to events that were occurring around the world. We as a group were interested in the change of the political messages that the murals were sending out to their communities comparing the messages from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research is relevant because with studying contemporary archaeology we are looking at old things to see how we can improve the future or be better for the future. With looking at the murals from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic we see the differences from the political talks, even when the political topics change it is always in a way in which the community is evolving to become better in society or get through difficult times together. By doing this project and related research we hoped to gain more knowledge in what the meaning behind the murals was and how those meanings compared to the meanings of murals before the pandemic.

Through our research I found that several of the murals from before COVID-19 were representations that spoke out on political, social and economic issues but there were more that were associated with the community. For example, murals of the puget sound to represent many of the events of Seattle culture were painted on one of the walls downtown. During COVID-19 we see more murals that represent the events that are occurring during this time period. For example, the murals of healthcare workers with face masks on to represent the frontline workers that are risking their lives to save many other lives and the face masks to show people to be cautious and stay safe. With comparing murals from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic I learned that murals are a great example of contemporary archaeology because they are constantly changing to represent events that are happening or to teach history of a place mostly of the place where the mural is located. Archaeologists can use murals to identify what a community is like or to figure out past/current events in the community.

To create our final unessay we as a group decided to create an instagram account with pictures of several different murals that we found while doing our research. We included pictures of murals from before and after the COVID-19 pandemic to show the difference in the messages that the murals represented. Comparing the murals from before and after helped us in our research by analyzing the  differences of murals and we can visibly see how times certainly change. On our instagram page you can see how contemporary archeology of murals and graffiti art is used to express situations of the time we are living in or the past times. The biggest take away from this project is that analyzing the murals with contemporary archaeology and the use of art through murals and graffiti we can discover the political events of the past and current time that we are living through, while also identifying what a community is like. These murals can pass on very important messages to the communities or even sometimes to the world when something like COVID-19 happens.

Lab 4: Unessay Project Overview

The goal of my Unessay Project is to comparatively distinguish if and how contemporary archaeology serves the people rather than serving itself to its own benefits. My project theme is to help diminish common assumptions of this particular study and show how the discoveries can be used to provide useful resources in ways where the dead and families of those that are no longer living can be given the  opportunity to access evidence that reveals buried truths like, what or who was actually responsible for their deaths. In addition, revealing the hidden past through contemporary archaeology of excavation sites involving buried human remains of unidentified victims that experienced violent deaths can act as a reminder and reassure people that these tragic events did occur in the past and that the families and communities that are related to these victims never initially healed from their losses.

      I was interested in this topic because personally speaking, I work with deceased individuals every week and have grown a deeper connection with the individual as well as their family and community overtime. Thus, discovering how there are individuals, families and communities that experience this intentionally wrongful coverup really captured my interest is understanding more about this field of study. Furthermore, what was interesting was to see how contemporary archaeology can unfold these truths to bring back dignity to these individuals including their family and community and be finally put to rest. I hope by revealing different archeological excavation burial sites will help capture the importance of the true aspects of contemporary archaeology in order to \to shed light on these existing communities to help people truly understand how we can effectively better serve these communities.

I learned about many different aspects to how we can better help these forgotten communities and how cotemporary archaeology acts as an assisting force to those victims of violent deaths and for the families and community involved. This research taught me that this field of study requires more support and the acknowledgement.

I integrated my final research findings into my final Unessay by incorporating images of excavation burial sites such as the one depicted below as well as potential excavation burial sites to provide some context on the history of these spaces as well as a visual connection so people can have a glimpse of what these places mean to these communities. Moreover, I inserted a few images of actual sites being excavated to illustrate the importance of respectful community involvement.  I also included a brief description of how contemporary archaeology was utilized within these spaces and how they served these communities in order to give people an opportunity to glance into the transparency of contemporary archaeology.

My take way from this project is how contemporary archaeology allows us to justify what happened in the past using respectful measures to bring peace and end the suffering of the families of the victims of violent deaths. The study also is a way that helps bring remembrance to these specific events in order to respectfully acknowledge the discovered victims as well as then events that lead to their death that have been wrongfully hidden overtime. More importantly, contemporary Archaeology is used to carefully examine the dead in order to understand more about what is existing and how we came to be where we are at today with respect to the communities associated with the victims including the victims. Thus, archaeologist must be able to properly identify themselves as supporting members that are capable of respectfully providing support, acknowledgment and help to these communities.


*Ambrose, Kevin. 2018. “The forgotten graves of soldiers killed 157 years ago, during the oppressively hot Battle of Blackburn’s Ford” The Washington Post website, Jul 18. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Baggaley, Kate. 2019. “New evidence points to mass graves of people killed in Tulsa’s 1921 race massacre” Popular Science website, Dec 18. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

*Brown, L. DeNeen. 2020. “‘Tulsa plans to dig for suspected mass graves from a 1921 race massacre’” The Washington Post website, Feb 4. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Brown, L. DeNeen. 2018. “‘They was killing black people’” The Washington Post website, Sept 28. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Gannon, Megan. 2020. “Unearthing the True Toll of the Tulsa Race Massacre” Sapiens website, May 22. Accessed [May 24, 2020].

Goldstein, Lynne and Keith Kintigh. 1990. “Ethics and the Reburial Controversy.” American Antiquity 55(3): 585-591.

Haglund, D. William. 2001. “Archaeologists as Forensic Investigators: Defining the Role” Historical Archaeology 53(1): 26-34.

*Jarus, Owen. 2018. “Photos: 1,500-Year-Old Massacre Site Unearth” Live Science website, Apr 25. [June 6, 2020].

Jones, D. Gareth and Robyn J. Harris. 1998. “Archeological Human Remains. Scientific, Cultural, and Ethical Considerations” Current Anthropology 39(2): 253-264

*Kennedy, Maev. 2018. “Swedish archaeologist uncover brutal 5th century massacre” The Guardian website, Apr 25. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

Medina, Juan., Lupton, Emily and White, Sarah. 2017. “Spanish archaeologists dig up more civil war dead from mass graves” Reuters website, Aug 30. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Mitchell, William. 2020. “Holocaust Archaeology Proves Deniers Wrong” Sapiens website, Apr 15. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Pappas, Stephanie. 2014. “First-Ever Excavation of Nazi Death Camp Treblinka Reveals Horrors” Live Science website, Mar 28. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

*Pearce, Joanna. 2019. “Digging up the Dead” Sapiens website, Nov 1. Accessed [May 24, 2020].

Scarre, Geoffrey. 2003. “Archaeology and Respect for the Dead” The Journal of Applied Philosophy 20(3): 237-249

Shelbourn, Carolyn. 2013. “Burial archaeology: reflections on the law, policy and ethics of research on human remains and ‘digging the dead’” Art Antiquity & Law 18(1): 59-75

*Strauss, Mark. 2016. “When Is It Okay To Dig Up The Dead?” National Geographic website, Apr 7. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Svoboda, Elizabeth. 2016. “Unearthing the Atrocities of Nazi Death Camps” Scientific American website, Apr 30. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

Ethics of Acknowledging the Unknown

The Oaklawn Cemetery

The Oaklawn Cemetery is a potential excavation site that is suspected to contain mass graves connected to the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre. (Brown, 2018) The 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre is considered one of the worst episodes of racial violent in U.S history. (Brown, 2018) The massacre all began when a black man was accused of assaulting a white woman which led to hundreds of black-owned businesses and homes being set on fire in Greenwood. (Brown, 2018) In addition, more than 300 black people were killed, more than 10,000 black people were left homeless, and 40 blocks were left smoldering. (Brown, 2018)   Most importantly, there are still victims that still left hidden and unidentified.

Recent archaeologist was able to discover several signs of possible mass graves at various sites which also includes the Oaklawn Cemetery.  In order to reveal whether if people were buried there, forensic archeologist will have to excavate the site and examine the remains to be identified. More than that, forensic archaeologist can reveal whether the skeletal remains exhibit characteristics that relates to the massacre. (Baggaley, 2019)

As for the victims and families that were greatly impacted by the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, forensic archaeology provides a common ground for the families and communities to rewrite history.  As Forensic anthropologist Sean Tallman shares, “one great feature about forensic archaeology is that it can help to provide information about things that aren’t necessarily recorded in history, that are sort of clandestine or hidden,” and adds “It can augment the historical record by showing what actually happened to potentially a large group of people.”

Sandby Borg

The Sandy Borg is a 5th century ringfort on the south-east coast of Oland island, Sweden. Archaeologist performed an excavation within the oval area surrounded by stone ramparts. (Current World Archaeology, 2019) Beneath the ground, archaeologist was able to reveal an occurrence of a brutal massacre in the late 5th century AD. (Current World Archaeology, 2019) There was massive amounts of people that were slaughtered and left to rot. (Current World Archaeology, 2019) Consequentially, the human remains, and valuables left buried beneath centuries ago can now have an opportunity the re-tell a part of history that has never been revealed.

Archaeologists were able to discover multiple evidence of a massacre that occurred more than 1500 years ago (Kennedy, 2018) They found out that the site was abandoned after an attack, leaving the dead unburied. (Jarus, 2018) A fortress was under attack and inhabitants were slaughtered. (Jarus, 2018) In one of the sections, archaeologists revealed evidence of an old man’s skull being smashed. In another section, they also unraveled how even children were not spared during the attack. (Kennedy, 2018) Overtime, archaeologist was able to unveil more about the village and its “catastrophic end”. (Kennedy, 2018)

              Overall, contemporary archaeology gives communities a chance to revisits untold truths of the past that have been buried away, just like the 5th century massacre.  Moreover, the hidden memories allow us to take some time to acknowledge the victims of these violent deaths, respectfully. Whether or not the victims can be identified, a proper burial site for the victims of this massacre is required, that way the victims are not left to rot with their last memories of the attack.

Treblinka Extermination Camp

The 1943 Treblinka extermination camp in Poland was where more than 900,000 Jewish deportees had been killed during World War II. (Svoboda, 2016) (Mithcell, 2020) (Pappas, 2014) The killings went on for 16 months, leaving mass graves behind. (Pappas, 2014) Witnesses stated seeing men were beaten and hacked to death while still alive. The site also includes gas chambers that were used as a trap to poison large amounts of deportees with carbon monoxide within 20 minutes. (Pappas, 2014) Most of all, this particular space requires caution and attention in a way that allows victims of this mass murder to be heard throughout time.

Archaeologists carried out an excavation at the Nazi death camp and found massive amounts of skeletal remains, brick walls and foundations of the gas chamber. (Pappas, 2014) More specifically, forensic archaeologist was able to indicate multiple knife marks existing on the bones which reveals the victims were also stabbed or assaulted. (Pappas, 2014) Beneath the surface they also discovered how the Nazis dumped sand from a quarry close by to help disguise or cover up the death camp. (Pappas, 2014)

Ultimately, contemporary archaeology can help localize buried truths without causing too much disturbance to the soil and the hidden remains. In addition, archaeologist’s approach of excavating devastating sites similar to Treblinka must be considered and requires the community’s respect, trust, and approval.  Furthermore, contemporary archaeologist can act as a fine-tooth comb that teases out the unknown details that were purposely covered and left in the past.

The image above illustrates a ground penetrating radar survey revealing a mass grave in Vinnytsia region of Ukraine. (Mitchell, 2020)

The image above depicts a volunteer helping with the excavation of the grave of Saturnino Til and Ramon Navarro, who were shot in 1936 by forces of dictator Francisco Franco in Gurrea de Gallego, Spain. (Reuters, 2017)

The image above is shows the 1997 Centreville excavation site that involves the graves of six Civil War soldiers being carefully revealed. (Ambrose, 2018)


*Ambrose, Kevin. 2018. “The forgotten graves of soldiers killed 157 years ago, during the oppressively hot Battle of Blackburn’s Ford” The Washington Post website, Jul 18. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Baggaley, Kate. 2019. “New evidence points to mass graves of people killed in Tulsa’s 1921 race massacre” Popular Science website, Dec 18. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

*Brown, L. DeNeen. 2020. “‘Tulsa plans to dig for suspected mass graves from a 1921 race massacre’” The Washington Post website, Feb 4. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Brown, L. DeNeen. 2018. “‘They was killing black people’” The Washington Post website, Sept 28. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Gannon, Megan. 2020. “Unearthing the True Toll of the Tulsa Race Massacre” Sapiens website, May 22. Accessed [May 24, 2020].

Goldstein, Lynne and Keith Kintigh. 1990. “Ethics and the Reburial Controversy.” American Antiquity 55(3): 585-591.

Haglund, D. William. 2001. “ Archaeologists as Forensic Investigators: Defining the Role” Historical Archaeology 53(1): 26-34.

*Jarus, Owen. 2018. “Photos: 1,500-Year-Old Massacre Site Unearth” Live Science website, Apr 25. [June 6, 2020].

Jones, D. Gareth and Robyn J. Harris. 1998. “Archeological Human Remains. Scientific, Cultural, and Ethical Considerations” Current Anthropology 39(2): 253-264

*Kennedy, Maev. 2018. “Swedish archaeologist uncover brutal 5th century massacre”  The Guardian website, Apr 25. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

Medina, Juan., Lupton, Emily and White, Sarah. 2017. “Spanish archaeologists dig up more civil war dead from mass graves” Reuters website, Aug 30. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Mitchell, William. 2020. “ Holocaust Archaeology Proves Deniers Wrong” Sapiens website, Apr 15. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Pappas, Stephanie. 2014. “First-Ever Excavation of Nazi Death Camp Treblinka Reveals Horrors” Live Science website, Mar 28. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

*Pearce, Joanna. 2019. “Digging up the Dead” Sapiens website, Nov 1. Accessed [May 24, 2020].

Scarre, Geoffrey. 2003. “Archaeology and Respect for the Dead” The Journal of Applied Philosophy 20(3): 237-249

Shelbourn, Carolyn. 2013. “Burial archaeology: reflections on the law, policy and ethics of research on human remains and ‘digging the dead’” Art Antiquity & Law 18(1): 59-75

*Strauss, Mark. 2016. “When Is It Okay To Dig Up The Dead?” National Geographic website, Apr 7. Accessed [June 1, 2020].

*Svoboda, Elizabeth. 2016. “Unearthing the Atrocities of Nazi Death Camps” Scientific American website, Apr 30. Accessed [June 6, 2020].

Lab 4: Unessay Project Overview, Archypop Tumblr Blog

The goal of my team and I’s unessay project was to create a tumblr blog inspired by the pop culture of the 90’s. We sought out to investigate overall the main trends and themes that were popular in the 90’s and how these themes are now translated in this decade. Our group as a whole was interested in the idea of pop culture being an archeological topic in general. We were curious on how this topic fit into out class, which gave us fuel to research more deeply into it. Going off of that, we then decided we should hone into a certain period of time, for the sake of being specific and not too broad. We landed upon the 90’s decade, out of our mere fascination and a specific interest in the punk rock culture and the pop divas. We found this research relevant because it showcases a key element of contemporary archeology which is that archeology doesn’t have to be about the ancient past, but can be about the events of last year or even last week. The focus of contemporary archeology is about the lost stories left behind in the dust of our now fast paced world and society. 

Header from the blog! https://archypop.tumblr.com/

Our initial research allowed us to understand more deeply how pop culture fits into archeology as a concept. We found that many artifacts associated with pop culture highlights emotions of nostalgia and the amazement of how fast and slow time feels. How things have changed and how we look back on events and what they used to be. Going off of this we found several postings and discussions on social media of people posting about them rediscovering movies, sounds, or toys that made them feel nostalgic. A couple of things we sought to showcase is how this has become a trend in the present, to romanticize and glorify trends from the past. Along with this, we see visual media on apps like TikToks trying to recreate their own “90’s aesthetic” or posting videos of their parents and family members in the past. I think this shows how a 60 second video can tell us about our current society’s perspective about our past just like an artifact would. And secondly how these perceptions differ from those in the past living in the 90’s. This difference in perception can lead us to a better understanding of how our world and people have changed.

This was out group when researching a different decade and also a cool meme that shows the value some people hold this decade to !

This also can be a signifier of how fast technology has pushed us to change and develop making pop culture trends accelerate faster. This causes these 90’s trends to seem a lot older than they relatively are. We also found some old trends that had now been misinterpreted or now used for a different modern idea or meme. As time and media pop culture trends continue, more and more themes of the 90’s will be remembered by the new jokes we made about them, then their actual origin. This connects to our findings in regards to the punk rock area of the 90’s. We discovered that there was a whole subsection of contemporary research known as punk archeology. Led by Andrew Reinhard, this series of blog posts, a book, and a documentary covers how the punk rock lifestyle and music reformed archeology. Finally, working on this unessay has now led me to change the way I look at social media forever, now when I see a post I think about how it’s adding to a global archive of a larger narrative about our present time.


Quarantine in the 90’s…again cuz I forgot to pick a good cover photo😂#quarantine #millennial #supernintendo #90skids #fyp #ithinkimlosingmymymind

♬ Myself – Bazzi

If you wanna learn more about Punk Archeology!

If you wanna learn more about Pop Culture in Archeology!




✨🌼90s🌸✨ On TikTok. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@_.moonjuice/video/6806042125587844358, accessed June 7, 2020


🥳, Jailyne


Jailyne 🥳 on TikTok. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@_.jayyyyy1/video/6817533764948774150, accessed June 7, 2020


Donaldson, Kayleigh


How Nostalgia Became Our Pop Culture Salve during These Dark Times. SYFY WIRE. SYFY WIRE. https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/how-nostalgia-became-our-pop-culture-salve-during-these-dark-times, accessed June 5, 2020


Lynch, Jason
Why Disney Keeps Buying All Your Favorite Childhood Icons. Quartz. Quartz.
https://qz.com/155390/why-disney-keeps-buying-all-your-favorite-childhood-icons/, accessed June 9, 2020


Maldonado, Adrián


The Materiality of Pop Culture and the Meaning of Almost Archaeology. Web log. Almost Archaeology. https://almostarchaeology.com/post/148684937103/popculture, accessed May 25, 2020




Mousenonokins on TikTok. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@mousenonokins/video/6814997918961978629?lang=en, accessed May 26, 2020


Plan, Simple


Simple Plan on TikTok. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@simpleplan/video/6831315898977029382, accessed June 7, 2020


r/Gaming – Comment by u/Johnnysbigday on “Found This Little Guy Abandoned in the Trash. Some People Have No Heart.” Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/gaming/comments/2j5zyj/found_this_little_guy_abandoned_in_the_trash_some/cl8vkff/, accessed May 26, 2020

Reinhard, Andrew.


Exhuming Atari, or Punk Archaeology Levels Up. Almost Archaeology. https://almostarchaeology.com/post/84509623583/exhuming-atari-or-punk-archaeology-levels-up, accessed May 26, 2020


Rigby, Karsen


Karsen Rigby on TikTok. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/@karsenrigby/video/6823801741629328645, accessed June 7, 2020


Zimmerman, Larry J., Courtney Singleton, and Jessica Welch


Activism and Creating a Translational Archaeology of Homelessness. World Archaeology 42(3):  443–454


Lab 4: Unessay Project Overview

The aim for this project was essentially to dive deeper into the effects that the Trump Administration Separation Policy has on families, especially children. I had five points that I knew I wanted to address following my investigation: One, identify what the policy is and how it had affected immigrant experiences. Two, highlight the struggles immigrants face when crossing the border and facing border patrol. Three, examine the psychological effects of those affected by this policy. Four, how trauma affects the lives of children and adults alike for the entirety of their lives. Five, understand what the policy is and whether it’s possible to dismantle the effects that proceed the traumatic experience. The overall concept of this project was to bring attention to the child migration crisis at the border through exposure of information and knowledge regarding the policy and its repercussions. I had an interest into this subject for a while, although it was enhanced after I worked on the border crossings and the archaeology of suffering project with my fellow classmates. After this I decided I wasn’t done learning about it and needed to learn more. This topic remains a relevant one to this day, even more so amplified by recent days as it has been discovered that further danger is being inflicted upon the children at the border. I hope this serves as a useful source of information regarding the controversial topic. Through personal experience, I know that the more exposed we are to new knowledge and information, the better we understand. 

I learned a great deal throughout my research process, especially regarding the mental effects children and adults are likely to endure after their experience. I also discovered that the living conditions are in fact a lot more severe than presented in the media, and it’s crucial we take action sooner than later. What this project taught me, however, is that this kind of topic, so personal and vulnerable, is not an easy one to talk about. I had to generalize a lot of what I had originally discovered due to preserving the privacy of the people involved. I didn’t want to disrespect anyone I had read upon, and this made me realize that generalizing this subject would be more comprehensible to a mainstream audience. Because the project format is intended for an Instagram story, the targeted audience is the mainstream social media. And that requires a more simple and direct approach in terms of marketing and advertising, so generalizing my project would in turn have a better result. Overall, it worked out for the best- though I’m glad I was introduced to new information because my understanding of this crisis has definitely increased. I feel more motivated and confident now when speaking of this subject, 

I integrated some of the knowledge I found from my research into my unessay project by paraphrasing the new information I had found. These bullet points were summarizations of main points regarding Trump’s policy, the living environment of the detained children, and the psychological effects preceded by the policy. Given the format of my project, it was important not to stack up too much information or to bombard the canvas with a bunch of text.  This is what inspired the Instagram story format- as I had seen many useful informatics displayed on various Instagram stories in the past, ranging from a variety of topics and helpful, nonetheless.

Overall, I’m pleased with the results of my research. Even more pleased with what I learned though. Like I mentioned before I knew I wanted to continue learning about this subject, and I think it payed off. Obviously, there’s still so much I don’t know, but with what I’ve learned, I’m confident I can have a proper conversation regarding the topic without sounding like I have no idea what I’m talking about. It’s also further encouraged me to do even further research and see how I myself can get involved with the child migration crisis. It’s such a large and tragic issue that needs to be understood by the public in order to approach change. I hope my project helps someone understand the issue, even if its brief exposure.

  • Stringer, Heather. “Psychologists Respond to a Mental Health Crisis at the 

Border.” apa.org. July 18, 2018. https://www.apa.org/news/apa/2018/border-family-separation.

Dating Techniques

In Jason De Leon’s research, he focused on a variety of topics such as migrant typology sites, use wear, and dating techniques. The typology of sites which De Leon focused on included, campsites, rest sites, pick up sites, religious shrines, and border staging areas. Campsites and rest sites were very similar as migrants can take a much-needed break from traveling at these sites. However, the campsites provide an area where migrants can meet up and rest overnight whereas the rest sites the migrants typically only stay briefly. Here, migrants are also able to consume some food to refuel their bodies for the treacherous hike. The religious shrines were the most interesting to study as migrants visit this space to leave offerings to wish for a safe journey from a higher power. While camp and rest sites provide physical refueling for the migrants, the religious shrines provide a mental refueling for migrants. These sites typically bring peace and hope for better travel. Pick up sites allow migrants to be picked up by smugglers and dump their belongings. Here, De Leon elaborates on how typical drug mules don’t leave much behind as they try to be as cautious as possible. Border staging areas provide migrants sleeping areas, more religious shrines, and clothes for migrants as they anticipate for the right time to cross the border. The journey for migrants is often difficult so this is a crucial stage for migrants as it often fills of reflection of their journey as well as prayer for a positive new start.

Wells, Michael (2014). “An alcove shrine near Lake Arivaca”. Photograph for Research Gate. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/An-alcove-shrine-near-Lake-Arivaca-Photograph-by-M-Wells_fig3_276914640
Wells, Michael (2015, October 23). “Memo and Lucho rest during the crossing. The bottom photos are of migrant campsites documented south of Green Valley, Arizona”. Photo for Land of Open Graves. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/lib/washington/reader.action?docID=2025610#

As for use wear, identifying physical evidence is difficult for archeologists due to it being biodegradable and difficult to track. For instance, vomit and blood would be absorbed by nature, other animals, or washed away. De Leon identified use wears in hopes of identifying some of the trauma such as pain. Use wear “refers to modifications to objects that occur when people use them in various ways”. This falls into two categories, wear patterns which is from wear and tear from intended tasks such as holes in shoes from walking long distances and extended wear; and modifications which include the changes that were made on an item to improve its functions or repair it such as taking another article of clothing to tie a shoe back together. This can be a difficult matter to study because some instances include finding children’s clothing such as a boot that wasn’t intended for such a treacherous hike with a heel falling off and many holes. Articles like such really put into perspective the pain that some migrant children must endure in search of a better life. 

UMP (2014). “Skeletonized human remains and worn-out shoes in Nogales–Sasabe corridor”. Photograph for Research Gate. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Skeletonized-human-remains-and-worn-out-shoes-in-Nogales-Sasabe-corridor-Photograph-by_fig4_276914640

Dating techniques typically give scientists a greater understanding of the timeframe in which migrants are traveling. These techniques include absolute dating and relative dating. Absolute dating is often discovered through time-stamped documents such as bus tickets or expiration dates of food. This also allows the public to learn of the routes and have some clue to some of the other travel methods of migrants. Relative dating relies on the degradation of articles such as plastic bottles, meats, fruit, or other foods. One interesting finding of plastic bottles on the migrant trails is the fact that many of them are covered in black plastic bags in order to camouflage them. This has also resulted in companies manufacturing black water bottles to be more appealing to those desperate to making the journey across the border.

Migrant Projects

San Mateo County History Museum, Land of Opportunity: the Immigrant Experience in San Mateo County exhibit 

San Mateo County Historical Association (2020). “Land of Opportunity”. Retrieved from https://historysmc.org/immigrants

These exhibits include migrants from all over the globe. These include Japanese, Italians, Chinese, Irish, Portuguese as well as Mexicans. This is extremely significant as the visitors to these exhibits can experience multiple cultures. It is important to note that this museum is located in Redwood City, California. America has always prided itself on being a melting pot of cultures and this museum highlights that very accurately. Within the exhibit, it highlights various migrant cultures and allows viewers to fully immerse in their culture and get a better understanding of the day to day life of these migrants. By telling the history of these migrants, we are able to keep their voices alive and not allow history books to hide the struggles that they faced after migrating to the US.

Minnesota Immigrants

Minnesota created a database that allows people to learn of the stories of their migrants. Overall, it covers many stories from immigrants from all over their state which allows audio and video histories to be shared and accessed by many. This is a very crucial database considering that migrants are able to post their stories directly, without allowing a third party to edit their stories in order to be published. Moreover, more people are able to learn about their experiences because the site offers video and audio storytelling which allows those who may not be able to read in English to still understand.

Asrat, Mussie (2015). “Mussie Asrat”. Photo for Minnesota Immigrants. Retrieved from https://immigrants.mndigital.org/exhibits/show/immigrantstories-exhibit/item/580

We learned of Mussie Asrat who is an immigrant from Eritrea. She tells us of a special coffee maker called a jebena. It “is made of clay and has a circle base, a long cylindrical neck, and a curved handle”. This differs greatly from the traditional American coffee maker as they aren’t as detailed and made from plastics instead of organic material such as clay. She elaborates on how it takes 2-3hrs to brew Eritrean coffee, which is an art in of itself, unlike an American coffee maker that is finished in 20 minutes. Every Sunday after church her family and friends always pulls out the jebena and enjoys Sunday coffee together. During these coffee dates, her family and friends frequently discuss how much they miss the old times being back in Eritrea with the same coffee maker. However, they can always rely on the jebena to bring them all together to make new memories. Even in the United States after they’ve immigrated.

Castillo, Kim (2014). “Kim Castillo”. Photo for Minnesota Immigrants. Retrieved from https://immigrants.mndigital.org/exhibits/show/immigrantstories-exhibit/item/490

We also learn of Kim Castillo who tells the story of her father immigrating to the United States from Bien Hoa, Vietnam when he was really young. What is fascinating about Kim’s story was the fact that her father actually built the boat that carried him along with many others to the US by himself. Kim tells of how her and her father would always spend much of their time together bonding in the kitchen. He used to teach Kim how to cook an abundance of Vietnamese food together which is how she has maintained her Vietnamese culture. As a mother now, she continues to carry on cooking traditional Vietnamese dishes with her children too.

Manzanar National Historic Site

National Park Service (2018, January 12). “Manzanar National Historic Site”. Photo for National Park Service. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/places/manzanar-national-historic-site.htm

This historic site is built in Independence, California by the United States government during World War II. Its sole purpose was to provide housing for relocated Japanese Americans. The significance of Manzanar is uncanny in United States history. It encapsulates the freedom of 120,000 people, half of which were not even 18 yet. Much of this history is buried through abandonment and lack of preservation, however, the National Park Service protected this site. Despite most buildings already destroyed, much of the remnants remain today such as the orchards, gardens, ponds, and some of the housing areas. This allows a staggering amount of people to stay educated on the violence and lack of humanity that lines American history.

The Face of Immigration

Cultural Misconceptions Myths . April 6, 2013.

Every American has heard news reports of “the border problem” and constant unwavering rhetoric that Mexican immigrants specifically are “criminals” and “rapists”. What we don’t see, however, is the stories of these people we judge. I have yet to see segments on CNN, Fox, or any other large networks that humanize these immigrants by airing their personal narrative. Instead, the powerful dictate what we see and hear and ultimately change our perception over time. We seem to be numb to Donald Trump’s erratic and radical statements about illegal immigrants, and allow this sentiment to become normalized and accepted. If we take the time to learn about these people and exactly what is occurring at our southern border, we can become more compassionate to their plight. Rather than seeing numbers on a screen, we see people seeking better opportunities and fleeing one form of oppression.

Digital Storytelling

The University of Minnesota’s Immigration Research Center created a project called “Immigrant Stories”, and is an excellent resource that takes technology to provide viewers with a visual narrative. This form of contemporary archaeology allows immigrants to tell their own story without a middleman and is documented for future generations to see. 

Although this project features immigrants from around the world I chose to highlight Miguel Diaz’s story. With over an hour of interview material, I was given plenty to work with to gain more insight into his experience. If you’d like to listen to it yourself, I’ve linked the audio below. However, I will discuss the significant moments of his story.


Miguel was born in 1987 in Uriangato, Guanajuato, Mexico, a town with under 200 inhabitants. He is the second youngest of 9 children and has only met a couple of them in his life. Miguel currently has a degree in business administration and is working on his master’s degree in business administration at North Dakota State University. He explains that the reason why his family moved to California in the first place was that his dad got through the 1987 immigration law that occurred in the United States, he was able to get a residence for himself and his family. And as a result, they were able to get legal residence. He was working there, illegally, in the prior years, and then in that year, he was able to get residence for everyone. The very first time they immigrated to California as legal residents, it was only his oldest siblings that came with their dad. Simply because my dad had a strategy. He couldn’t afford to bring everyone at the same time… And so what he did is he brought those who were able to work… To be able to help him save some money so that he would be able to bring the rest of his children to the United States. Eventually, each of his siblings was married and bought homes for their families. He continues on discussing the Mexican traditions his family maintains, such as Las Posadas, he explains them as “each family gets an opportunity to participate by hosting a posada, where each family is in charge of having, you know, a food ready for those who attend the posada, and being able to participate in the readings and in the lectures that are going on”. By maintaining their roots as well as embracing American ways, they were able to assimilate and contribute to American culture. 

By hearing stories such as Miguel’s, we are able to feel more compassion for those who enter our country. He is able to tell his own story without a third party choosing what parts of his story they want to portray. Digital storytelling is an invaluable tool for people, especially immigrants to tell their stories.

Voices of Ballard

“Voices of Ballard: Immigrant Stories from the Vanishing Generation” was published in 2001 and is a collection of interviews as part of the Nordic American Voices Oral History Initiative, “an ambitious effort to collect, preserve, and share the life histories of Nordic immigrants and their descendants in the Pacific Northwest,” according to the Nordic Heritage Museum. Of the 29 volunteers that collected the stories, they found that most people believed their stories were unremarkable and rather ordinary. Through this project, they found that they were in fact very captivating, about their lives throughout the 20th century. I found this bottom-up approach to be enlightening, it’s not about the political leaders, it’s the stories of individuals who survived through two world wars, a great depression and the transition to life in a new world and the constant effort to retain ethnic traditions.

Although this isn’t about Hispanic immigrants, I found it to be a very interesting project done right next to us. It shows the value of immigrant stories and social and historical knowledge. The Pacific Northwest is full of immigrants who have amazing stories to tell of their journey and lives. 

An Anthropology of Familismo

Journals such as this one are important. They provide another narrative for Mexican immigrants, that Hispanic and Latino populations have a strong identification and attachment of persons with their nuclear and extended families (Moore, 1970), also known as familismo (Smith-Morris).

Familismo is theorized as a core cultural value that requires the individual to submit to a more collective, family-based form of decision-making, and responsibility for, and obligation to ensuring the well-being of family members (both nuclear and extended).” – Carolyn Smith-Morris

Rather than the narrative that immigrants are “criminals”, this journal shows the portrayal we don’t often see. The information for this paper was gathered by asking informants directly about the relevance and meaning of family in their lives, rather than through observations.

Throughout my research on this project, this is the only study I found that focuses on Hispanic identity and what contributes to their close family ties. This lack of knowledge (and unwillingness to want to learn) regarding immigrants plays into the “criminal” stigma we often see portrayed in the media and by our own President. 

By using these case data to highlight the complexity of core values, and how they are influential in the lives of informants, we hope to promote greater sensitivity in studies of culture change in migrants and to promote complementary of contextual and qualitative data in social scientific research.”  – Carolyn Smith-Morris


Whether you view America as a mixed salad or melting pot we are, and always will be, a land of immigrants. There is no single way to define American culture and traditions and to me, that is truly what makes America great. Technology has made it possible for us to see and hear Immigrant stories and experiences first hand. It is our moral obligation to do our own research and form our own opinions, we cannot hide behind this false ideology of nationalism and blindly believe everything we are told. We are all humans, everyone deserves to be treated as such despite our race, gender, sexual orientation or legal status.


Cultural Misconceptions Myths . April 6, 2013. https://culturalmisconceptions.wordpress.com/.

“Immigrant Stories.” College of Liberal Arts | University of Minnesota. Immigration History Research Center, March 9, 2017. https://cla.umn.edu/ihrc/immigrant-stories 

Edwards, Haley Sweetland. “A Close Look at Migration and the People Risking Everything.” Time. Time, January 24, 2019. https://time.com/longform/migrants/ 

Moen, Lynn. Voices of Ballard: Immigrant Stories from the Vanishing Generation. Seattle, WA: Nordic Heritage Museum, 2001.

Moore, Joan W. “Colonialism: The Case of the Mexican Americans.” Social Problems 17, no. 4 (1970): 463–72. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.1970.17.4.03a00050.

Smith-Morris, Carolyn, Daisy Morales-Campos, Edith Alejandra Castañeda Alvarez, and Matthew Turner. “An Anthropology of Familismo.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 35, no. 1 (2012): 35–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986312459508.

US Immigration Policy Throughout Time

America is a land of immigrants, to ignore that is to ignore the foundation of our society. In current news, immigration has been a hot topic for many presidential candidates and elect alike. The ambivalence of laws and public opinion regarding immigrants has made it very difficult for immigrants to feel any sense of security. America often forgets that there are many forms of and reasons for migration (refugee, work, the reunion of families, opportunity, education, etc.). At some points, we seem to realize and understand this, yet other times we turn on people in their time of need. To understand the archaeology of immigration we must first understand the history of immigration patterns, perception, and laws in the United States. In this article, I will outline a brief history of significant immigration laws and policies beginning in the 17th century, to our current reality.


During this time, the United States of America had recently gained independence from Britain and was a young country trying to find its way. Immigration was dramatically encouraged at this time, as people were needed to settle on the empty lands. As states were established throughout the century they each adopted their own immigration policies. The first significant law restricting immigration in the United States was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Chinese workers were blamed for declining wages and economic failures on the West Coast. To placate workers and maintain “racial purity”, congress passed the exclusion act (History.com). In 1876, the Supreme Court declared that the regulation of immigration was a federal responsibility. Legislation in 1891 and 1895 created the Bureau of Immigration (Historical Overview of Immigration Policy). 

1900 to 1950’s

From the early 20th century until the 1950s, 24 million immigrants arrived in the United States in what is called the “Great Wave”. Immigration from Europe was largely reduced following World War I, but mass immigration from other parts of the world resumed (Historical Overview of Immigration Policy). As a result, Congress passed the national-origins quota system, which established the nation’s first numerical limits on the number of immigrants who could enter (Closing the Door on Immigration (U.S. National Park Service)). This was designed to keep out “undesirable” ethnic groups and maintain America’s largely northern and western European population. The following 20 years had very little immigration due to the Great Depression, so labor from Mexico was imported through the Bracero Program.


In 1965 congress replaced the quota restrictions with the Immigration and Naturalization Act which was designed to unite immigrant families and attract skilled workers. Policymakers vastly underestimated the number of people that would immigrate, immigration nearly tripled each year following the legislation (“Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965”).


Preferential treatment of Europeans continued throughout immigration laws and policies, however, congress responded to refugees with special legislation. It wasn’t until 1980 that the Refugee Act was passed to specifically govern refugee admission. 

Another major law was passed by congress in 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act. This granted legalization to millions of unauthorized immigrants, mainly from Latin America, who met certain conditions (Cohn).


The Immigration Act of 1990 increased annual limits on immigration, revised visa category limits to increase skilled labor immigration and expanded and revised the grounds for removal and inadmissibility (Rasmussen). In addition, a diversity lottery was introduced to aid people who had been adversely affected by the quota restrictions enacted in 1965. 

However, in 1994, the United States took a controversy stand against illegal immigration south of the border. Prevention Through Deterrence, De León states, “relies on the use of hyper-security measures such as high fencing and hundreds of agents on the ground in unauthorized crossing areas around urban ports of entry” (A View From the Train Tracks). Illegal traffic was forced to travel a more hostile terrain, in honor of the lives lost, De León and many others have created projects to commemorate them (link Adriane’s case study article). Despite this, more than 5 million undocumented migrants have crossed into America, yet the journey killed more than 7,000 people, basically outsourcing border patrol agents jobs to the harsh environment.


On September 11, 2001, the public perception of immigration was sharply affected. A terrorist attack in which 20 foreign-born people caused the largest attack on American soil, illuminated the issues in America’s immigration system. As a result, there was an emphasis on American immigration law enforcement regarding border security and removing criminal aliens to protect the nation (Post-9/11). 

In 2007 the American senate attempted to pass the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act which “would have given a path to citizenship to the large majority of illegal entrants in the country, significantly increased legal immigration and increased enforcement” (Historical Overview of Immigration Policy). However, this bill was largely unpopular among the American public as views of immigrants steadily became more and more negative.

2010’s – Obama

Throughout Barack Obama’s 2010 presidential campaign he made many promises to reform America’s immigration system, however much of his plans were halted by the intransigent congress. Unfortunately, great immigration reform in America will not be what Obama is remembered for, but he did enact some legislation to protect DREAMERs (American Immigration Council Staff). 

DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)

In 2012, President Obama signed an executive order creating DACA. DACA changed the lives of many young immigrants, specifically those brought into the United States as children, and were raised and educated here. This initiative removed the constant threat of deportation and fear that these individuals faced every day. As of this year, 740,000 people have benefitted from this program (American Immigration Council Staff). However, this legislation has been battled by congress, the following president, and people who don’t think migrants should be granted these rights


In the past, immigration enforcement in the United States has looked like workplace raids and targeting all undocumented immigrants. He refocused America’s enforcement by instead penalizing employers and targeting people that posed threats to society (American Immigration Council Staff). In the book titled Collateral Damage: an Examination of ICEs Fugitive Operations Program, the authors put it best by stating the United States apprehended “the easiest targets, not the most dangerous fugitives” (Page 2). 


Despite Obama’s seemingly pro-immigration stance throughout the media, America actually saw record-high deportation numbers. During his 8 years in office, there were more than 2.7 million deportations, of which 91% were previously convicted of a crime (Marshall). “Felons, not families. Criminals, not children. Gang members, not a mom who’s working hard to provide for her kids. We’ll prioritize, just like law enforcement does every day,” Obama said in November 2014 when he first announced his executive action.


Thousands of migrants mainly from Central America flee the violence ensuing in their home countries, seeking asylum in the United States. A study from the UN’s refugee agency estimated that 65.3 million people worldwide have been displaced due to persecution and conflict (Edwards).

Although Obama is the leading president of deportations in the United States, a large majority were criminals. He believed in keeping families together and making this country just a bit safer. His policies such as DACA made immigrants in America feel safer for a short time.

2010’s – Trump & The Wall

Donald Trump’s radical presidential campaign was propped up on the back of immigration policy. He united the right with his anti-immigrant rhetoric and infamous “Build the Wall” slogan. His remarks gained publicity throughout the country and sparked countless debates and unrest. Perhaps Trump’s most controversial quote was proclaimed on June 16, 2015, in Trump Tower, “When Mexico sends its people, they’re not sending their best. . . They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and they’re bringing those problems with us. They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists” (Phillips). However, a study by the Migration Policy Institute in 2015 found that “evidence indicates that immigration does not correlate with higher crime rates” (Maciag). We’ve become numb to this rhetoric, we are no longer surprised by his outrageous and harmful words.

Birthright Citizenship

Birthright citizenship is also referred to by many as ‘anchor babies’. Birthright citizenship is citizenship to any child born in the US, regardless of parents’ citizenship, under the citizenship clause of the 14th Amendment. On October 30th, 2018 Trump stated by means of an executive order that he planned to remove this (Silva).

Border Security & Wall

Trump made border security and illegal immigration a cornerstone of his presidential campaign. His solution? Build a wall and make Mexico pay for it. An idea that millions of American’s fully supported, despite the lack of an actionable plan. However, Trump managed to get his wish of a wall (with some fences), paid for by American’s. On September 12th, 2017 the United States Department of Homeland Security issued a notice that they would be waiving certain laws and regulations to begin construction of the wall (Hand). What certain laws were bypassed you may ask?

  • The National Environmental Policy Act
  • The Endangered Species Act
  • The Clean Water Act
  • The Clean Air Act
  • The National Historic Preservation Act
  • The Migratory Bird Treaty Act
  • The Migratory Bird Conservation Act
  • The Archaeological Resources Protection Act
  • The Safe Drinking Water Act
  • The Noise Control Act
  • The Solid Waste Disposal Act
  • The Antiquities Act
  • The Federal Land Policy and Management Act
  • The Administrative Procedure Act
  • The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
  • The American Indian Religious Freedom Act 

All of these acts and laws that we have determined to be fair and justified are now overlooked and violated by the United States government to build a wall a large majority of people don’t even support.

As public opinion on immigration changes throughout the decades, laws are changed to reflect this. First, we have a land of immigrants, all are welcome (at least if you’re European), then all immigrants are criminals. What is it that determines who we consider to be “outsiders”? Aren’t we all born from immigrants (excluding Native Americans) who journeyed to the “land of opportunity”? It is clear that every country needs restrictions on immigration, but it is the way we perceive and criminalize people based on the color of their skin and country of origin. Some people would say that legal status is what makes you an “insider”, others say shared language or even political and social engagement (Jones-Correa). But this is not always true. African American’s were imported as goods to be bought and sold, even hundreds of years of forced assimilation into American culture they are perceived by many as “outsiders”. Even Hispanics that legally migrate to the United States are told they are “rapists” and “criminals”, by someone who claims to be the leader of this nation. We must remember that America was built on the backs of immigrants, that we are a land of immigrants, and on that basis, to turn them away is inherently unamerican. So what can we do? Be critical of what you hear. Stay educated. Speak up for marginalized and oppressed groups. And above all, in a time of so much unrest, try to be compassionate. It is easy to be caught up in all the anger and confusion we are faced with every day, but remember that we are all people. We all want a better life, and turning on one another is not the solution.

We will never be a united nation until we realize the harm our actions and words have on others. All men are created equal, and as such under the American Constitution, have equal opportunity and pursuit of happiness. If we have learned anything from our history, let it be “a nation divided against itself cannot stand” (Lincoln). 


American Immigration Council Staff. “President Obama’s Legacy on Immigration.” Immigration Impact, Jan 20, 2017. https://immigrationimpact.com/2017/01/20/president-obamas-legacy-immigration/#.XrRsYahKjb0, accessed May 7, 2020.

“Closing the Door on Immigration (U.S. National Park Service).” National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Accessed May 28, 2020. https://www.nps.gov/articles/closing-the-door-on-immigration.htm

Cohn, D’Vera. “How U.S. Immigration Laws and Rules Have Changed through History.” Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center, September 30, 2015. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/09/30/how-u-s-immigration-laws-and-rules-have-changed-through-history/

Edwards, Adriane. “Global Forced Displacement Hits Record High.” The UN Refugee Agency, UNHCR, 20 June 2016, www.unhcr.org/en-us/news/latest/2016/6/5763b65a4/global-forced-displacement-hits-record-high.html

Hand, Mark. “Homeland Security Waives Environmental Review for California Border Project.” ThinkProgress, 12 Sept. 2017, https://thinkprogress.org/border-barrier-waivers-f27e30362472/

Historical Overview of Immigration Policy

CIS.org. Center for Immigration Studies . https://cis.org/Historical-Overview-Immigration-Policy, accessed May 22, 2020

History.com Staff. “Chinese Exclusion Act.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, August 24, 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/immigration/chinese-exclusion-act-1882

“Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.” US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Accessed May 28, 2020. https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1951-2000/Immigration-and-Nationality-Act-of-1965/

Jones-Correa, Michael. “Crossing the Line Between ‘Immigrant’ and ‘American’.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 18 Nov. 2012, www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/11/15/how-immigrants-come-to-be-seen-as-americans/how-immigrants-are-marked-as-outsiders

León, Jason De, and Eduardo García. “A View From the Train Tracks.” SAPIENS. Austin Shipman, October 2, 2018. https://www.sapiens.org/culture/prevention-through-deterrence/

Lincoln, Abraham. “Political Debates Between Hon. Abraham Lincoln and Hon. Stehen A. Douglas … : Abraham Lincoln , Stephen Arnold Douglas : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive, Follett, Foster Andcompany, 1 Jan. 1860, archive.org/details/politicaldebate03douggoog. 

Maciag, Michael. “The Mythical Link Between Immigrants and High Crime Rates.” Governing, 2 Mar. 2017, www.governing.com/topics/public-justice-safety/gov-undocumented-immigrants-crime-pew.html 

Marshall, Serena. “Obama Has Deported More People Than Any Other President.” ABC News, ABC News Network, 29 Aug. 2016, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/obamas-deportation-policy-numbers/story?id=41715661. 

Mendelson, Margot, Shayna L. Strom, and Michael Wishnie. Collateral Damage: an Examination of ICEs Fugitive Operations Program. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, 2009.

Mohamed, Heather Silber, and Emily M. Farris. “Immigration Politics and Policy in the United States.” Oxford Bibliographies Online Datasets, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0223.

Moritz, John C., Aileen B. Flores, Brandon Loomis, Daniel González, and Gustavo Solis. “The Wall – An in-Depth Examination of Donald Trump’s Border Wall.” USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network. Accessed May 22, 2020. https://www.usatoday.com/border-wall/

Office of the Press Secretary. “FACT SHEET: Immigration Accountability Executive Action.” The White House, Nov 20, 2014. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/11/20/fact-sheet-immigration-accountability-executive-action, accessed May 19, 2020.

Phillips, Amber. “Analysis | ‘They’re Rapists.’ President Trump’s Campaign Launch Speech Two Years Later, Annotated.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 16 June 2017, www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/06/16/theyre-rapists-presidents-trump-campaign-launch-speech-two-years-later-annotated/

“Post-9/11.” USCIS, September 23, 2013. https://www.uscis.gov/history-and-genealogy/our-history/overview-ins-history/post-911

Rasmussen, Scott. “Immigration Act of 1990.” Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia, March 21, 2017. https://ballotpedia.org/Immigration_Act_of_1990

Silva, Chantal Da. “Trump Says He Plans to Sign an Executive Order to End Birthright Citizenship.” Newsweek, Newsweek, 30 Oct. 2018, www.newsweek.com/trump-says-he-plans-sign-executive-order-terminate-birthright-citizenship-1192823