Unessay Project Overview

For my Unessay project, my goal was to expose the meaning of the Rising Sun flag while comparing it to the Nazi Swastika flag. I was interested in this topic because as South Korean, I grew up learning about the remnants of Japanese colonial period that still remains in South Korea. Also, as one of handful of Asian students who went to a private Jewish High School, comparing Nazi flag and the Rising sun flag was something that naturally provoked me a lot. The dichotomy of the two flags, how one flag is considered as a taboo and other one is merely as a ‘cool’ design, always made me feel frustrated. One thing that I wanted to gain a clear perspective on was about how German and Japan is remembering and repenting their war victims and war crimes.

Throughout my research, I learned that how each country reacted to their past is polar opposite of each other. Compared to Japan, Germany’s sincere action of penance and apology was able to show what a leader of nation can do to make up for the past mistakes their predecessors have made. For Japan, even though the action of penance and apology was all that the victims have asked for, but they have never delivered that long-overdue apology. Instead, Prime ministers of Japan have been attending the memorial service at the Yasukuni shrine on the 15th of August every year to pay respect to their war criminals and war veterans, whose remains are buried with the victims they have killed themselves during the colonial period.  

As I chose the PowerPoint presentation format as a mean to deliver my Unessay project, I mainly used the photos from the WW II era and post-war era to depict the similarities that the Germany and Japan shared and how the ideas behind the flags are almost synonym for one another. For example, I thought that this photo clearly depicts the connection between the Imperialism and Nazism during the war

One main thing that I am taking away from this project is about how Japanese government is reacting to the international criticism of their denial of war crime and history. As I mentioned in my presentation, Japanese government is still trying to erase significant portions of World War history and their exploitation of colonial victims from their textbook, while denying their crimson history. I think that we learn history to learn from our own mistakes. We learn history to not repeat the nightmares that many have gone through without a reason. If no one is willing to learn from their mistakes, what future do they have?

Bibliography

Looking Back: Unessay Project Overview

The goal of my Unessay Project: Surveying Among the Stars: Account of an emerging technology, under review, was to examine current literature with a critical lens whilst learning about current developments in the world of Archaeology. The basis of my research was rooted in the book, Archaeology from Space: How the Future Shapes our Past by Sarah Parcak. Parcak’s publication stands as a testimony to the incredible possibilities of the field of space Archaeology.
The culmination of this venture I undertook was a book review blog post.

ARCHAEOLOGY FROM SPACE: HOW THE FUTURE SHAPES OUR PAST, by Sarah Parcak, 2019, Henry Holt and Co., New York, NY, 283 pages, $14.99 (Hardcover), $14.99 (Kindle).

To explain why this for my Unessay project, I will start by saying: I love reading. Through inquiry for book recommendations, one of my awesome professors, a renowned contemporary archaeologist, answered my plea. Parcak’s book was indeed on her list. After searching the title, reading the summary, and conducting preliminary research in the field (findings, its history), I came across mention of  its employment in “espionage”. I was, to say the least: VERY intrigued. For those that did not know me as a child, I was at one point, along with wanting to be a baker and ballerina, wanted to be a Spy (thank you, Mr. Robert Rodriguez). As I am now pursuing nursing – and further understanding the realness of danger that surrounds the field (and my inability to really keep a secret, or to lie), one can safely assume that this occupational prospect is behind me. But, indeed Parcak made me pause and reminisce this time of my life (see Declassified Satellite Imagery-1). Beyond this particular fascination: having always been dazzled by the stars, interested in learning about technological advancements, the concept of mapping, and lastly, research, I was pretty much sold. This book is relevant as it covers contemporary methods that in which not only uncover ancient sites, but also redefine current understandings/assumptions. In doing this project and related research I hoped to gain a better understanding of the current and emerging technological ventures.

In my research I learned about numerous methods employed through the usage of space archaeology. Furthermore, I learned of instances of their application as well as the fruit of those labors. Every piece of the harvest, whether it being the uncovering of walls (Parcak 2019: 54), unearthing of carnelian (59), or new iteration of a past history (60), was poignant. These pieces, resulting from either preliminary Google Earth “traverses”, processing, then reprocessing of satellite data, or from examining satellite databases for local imagery after poring over numerous regional excavation and survey reports (54-55), although intensive, was able to cut down time, energy and resource expenditure, and overall “guesswork”. That being said, it must be noted that these are just a few findings across only a tiny fraction of this work.
In the closing sentence of her introduction she says:

“Perhaps it is a start to understanding what makes us human: our ability to ask how, where, when, why, and who, and creating the tools we need to bring the answers to life, on Earth, looking down from outer space”

(Sarah Parcak 2019:9)

When first reading, I found this statement quite “hopeful”. But from the trove of testaments that in which I was able to read for myself (and hope you would consider reading for yourself), this proposition seems less like idealized speculation, and more like a claim rooted in reason. 

As my Final Unessay Project’s final form was a book review blog post, I approached it through a critical lens, engaging in strategies to develop my critical reading and evaluating skills. As I read this book and came across methods, locations, histories, or peoples that I knew very little to zilch about, I found myself digging deeper than usual into sources. Where I would once stop at a dictionary or a webpage, I looked into textbooks, government-based articles, databases and news sources. I linked a number of them in my blog post along with accompanying images. If your knowledge base was “premature” as mine was, hopefully they will prove useful, and/or interesting to you.

In the end, I took away a deeper, greater, more-informed interest in the emerging field that is space archaeology. I came away with a stronger skill/tool set of critical reading and evaluation strategies, and greater familiarity with archaeological research and writing. Furthermore, in learning of all of the long-employed as well as novel-innovated archaeological methods of archaeologists, I came away with a greater understanding and appreciation of the work, the players, and the implications of the field.

Bibliography

Cherrington, Emil and et al.
Use of public Earth observation data for tracking progress in sustainable management of coastal forest ecosystems in Belize, Central America. Remote Sensing of Environment Elsevier 245(111798) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111798

Declassified Data – Declassified Satellite Imagery – 1 1960-1972. EROS Archive. USGS, United States.

DiBiase, David
2009 11. Multispectral Imaging from Space. Courseware Module, https://www.e-education.psu.edu/natureofgeoinfo/node/1899

Fitoka, Eleni and et al.
2020 Water-related ecosystems mapping and assessment based on remote sensing  techniques and geospatial analysis: The SWOS national service case of the Greek Ramsar sites and their catchments. Remote Sensing of Environment. Elsevier 245(111795) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111795

Handwerk, Brian
 2009-2015 “Lost City” of Tanis. National Geographic. Web Page. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/archaeology/tanis-egypt/#close

Estrin, James
2011 The Classified Photos, The Art of Surveillance. New York Times. Web Page. https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/18/in-classified-photos-the-art-of-surveillance/?mtrref=www.google.com&register=facebook

Lem, Pola
2017 Peering through the Sands of Time: Searching for the Origins of Space Archaeology. NASA: Earth Observatory.

Parcak, Sarah
2019 Archaeology from Space: How the Future Shapes Our Past. New York. Henry Holt and Co.

Surveying among the stars: Account of an emerging technology, under review

BOOK REVIEW by Victoria Ann Toribio Tirado

Image of Sarah Parcak's book - Archaeology From Space: How the Future Shapes Our Past.
ARCHAEOLOGY FROM SPACE: HOW THE FUTURE SHAPES OUR PAST, by Sarah Parcak, 2019, Henry Holt and Co., New York, NY, 283 pages, $14.99 (Hardcover), $14.99 (Kindle).

The topic of satellite/space archaeology is – reportedly – a revolutionary, emerging technology and field of study in Contemporary Archaeology. It is of seemingly great relevance today for its potential and recorded uses in the study of earth’s landscape. It is said to have major implications on the study of those that have, are, and will reside upon it.

Sketch of the Landsat 1 satellite – the first ever Earth-observing satellite meant to monitor our planet’s landmasses. (1972)


LAUNCHPAD

According to the author,

“Perhaps it is a start to understanding what makes us human: our ability to ask how, where, when, why, and who, and creating the tools we need to bring the answers to life, on Earth, looking down from outer space.”

(Sarah Parcak 2019:9)

Evaluating this book with a critical lens resting upon the author’s accounts of personal experiences, the field’s methods and the proposed discoveries, Tirado guides the reader through a review of the book’s structural elements: author credibility, literary methods, perspectives and supporting evidence presented, and book organization and elements. This lens takes the form of crosscheck analysis.

THE SOLAR CELL

Sarah Parcak, an Egyptologist by specialty, and professor of archaeology by occupation, works within the realms of what the public may render as being reminiscent of science fiction or spy novel-plots. She is known as a trailblazer in her field and has greatly contributed to the course of its impact thus far. Her reality is comparative to that of Gandalf (see also Gandalf the Gray) in search of answers in the archives of Minas Tirith – intensive and extensive. “Between cutting-edge satellite data and classic fieldwork” she works on her “minimalist lab” (her heavy-duty, “ancient” laptop) to examine findings taken by satellite imagery and other remote sensing tools. Via sometimes satellite and hyper-spectral camera data, she looks for subtle differentiation in landscape, that is – “topography, geology and plant life.” Her work has virtually transported her from her “lab” in Birmingham, Alabama to places such as: Egypt, Romania, Kenya and Newfoundland to name only several. Upon these landscapes, she renders city grids, incredible maps that are astoundingly revealing. Perhaps her most famous uncovering was the city grid of the City of Tanis (see: “Lost City” of Tanis). Uncovering sites other professional excavators have missed, she has shaken the dust, now being called upon to begin and embark upon projects  where she is satellite-mapping entire countries (e.g., a crowd-sourcing project known as GlobalXplorer, Peru). In academia, she has published numerous peer-reviewed scientific papers and has been featured in a number of documentaries and talks across renowned networks such as BBC, PBS and TED.com. She is also a TED Senior Fellow, National Geographic Explorer (2012-present) and founder of the Laboratory of Global Observation at the University of Alabama: Birmingham.

Parcak, Sarah H. . Archaeology from Space (p. 88, 89, 97). Henry Holt and Co.. Kindle Edition

Another book she has published includes Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology (2009).

SENSING

Using a Descriptive literary method/style, she brings forth scenes and events that which appeal to our imaginations. She recalls immersive anecdotes of her experiences, such as flying over Egypt the first time, the sometimes groan-provoking experience of computer program crashes whilst conducting remote sensing work; the rush of making new archaeological finds through satellite imaging and remote sensing technologies. In these stories, she relates to the reader (Senatori 2017) and engages the readers’ senses as well as emotions. She situates the field within its past, across the globe, and in its interdisciplinary span of persons and procedures.

ANALYZING

From Chapter 1 to the concluding paragraph of Chapter 12, the author’s pursuit/thesis stands as a success with no small amount of awe and excitement from one of its readers (me). Through a first-person perspective, she touches upon different sides of the “Space Archaeology” debate, addressing it with experiences, procedural breakdowns, an interspersing of visual aids, and no shortage of historical and contemporary references – from Howard Carter (discoverer of King Tut’s Tomb) to Doug Bolender (archaeologist in search of Viking settlements in the landscapes of Iceland). Also notable is that supporting evidence used has been used to explain even her mistakes in discernment. One such case was of Papa Stour where upon analyzing dashed lines on a spectral image, that there was probably nothing more than a modern pipeline. But what came to be was an elite’s Viking structure! This book brings attention the great possibility in further research with potentially increased efficiency and even accuracy (Parcak 2019: 6), presented through cases where technologies of this young field were employed (e.g., Infrared and Color Technology — CORONA Data sets (35-36); NASA — TIROS satellites (36); multispectral scanners — ERTS-1/Landsat-1(37), WorldView-2(92-94), Landsat 7 (236), Quickbird (273)).

SPANNING OUT: Looking at the “Back Matter”

Acknowledgments: Parcak thanks every person, agency and organization that which worked with her and/or contributed to her work. Some of the agencies and she references includes Abrams Artists Agency, Holt, the Ministry of Antiquities in Egypt, the Tuesday Agency, DigitalGlobe, and funding Agencies. For organizations, she address GlobalXplorer, National Geographic, Young Global Leaders, Ministry of Culture, and Sustainable Preservation Initiative. As for people – editors, families, coworkers, her chairmen, her TED Fellow family and team, friends and supporters at home and abroad as well (from Birmingham to India, Peru, United Kingdom, Canada and Newfoundland).
Parcak also includes an area for Photos, a thorough Index, an About the Author section, a Newsletter Sign-Up page and a Copyright notice.
Beyond this, looking at her Notes, there is nothing short of 28 pages of references (hyperlinks also available if you access the Kindle version).

BACK TO HOME BASE

Looking critically at her work from a literary standpoint, her descriptive style and narrative cadence made it easy for a range of readers to access and relate to her work. I did not happen to come across any grammatical errors and would say the editors did a grand job with making sure they didn’t go to print (if any were made in the first place). The organization was also very helpful and reasonably executed – as archaeologists indeed aim to embody in their work.
Bringing this altogether, with its storytelling cadence and fortification of numerous references, this book packs quite the awesome punch. Her presentation of findings and supporting evidence, covering personal and verifiable experiences of challenge and practical problem solving, rounds out to a very cool read – a tour de force and showcase that there is so much to see, to learn and understand on the horizon – that which could perhaps begin with looking down from outer space. In a perhaps poignant way, in her book she speaks of a takeaway after attending the first international conference on satellite archaeology in Beijing, China:

My extraordinary colleagues at the conference had opened my eyes to a broader archaeological world – one of collaboration, encouragement, and cheering on, and they showed me that there’s a big planet to map and plenty of discoveries to go around.

Sarah Parcak, 2019: 41

For more of Sarah Parcak’s work:
GlobalXplorer | Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology (2009)
PBS NOVA Special: Vikings Unearthed
BBC Documentary: Rome’s Lost Empire
TED 2012, 2016, 2017

REFERENCES AND RELATED READING

BIOS N.d. “Howard Carter.” History website. Accessed [June 11, 2020]. https://bit.ly/37pog6W

Cherrington, Emil and et al.
Use of public Earth observation data for tracking progress in sustainable management of coastal forest ecosystems in Belize, Central America. Remote Sensing of Environment Elsevier 245(111798) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111798

Crawford, Barbara and Ballin-Smith, Beverley
1978 A Progress Report of the First Season’s Excavation at “Da Biggins,” Papa Stour, Shetland Edinburgh, Scottish Society for Northern Studies. Google Book.

Declassified Data – Declassified Satellite Imagery – 1 1960-1972. EROS Archive. USGS, United States. Web Page. https://on.doi.gov/3hpEfqf

DiBiase, David
2009 11. Multispectral Imaging from Space. Courseware Module, https://bit.ly/30zhwCe

Fitoka, Eleni and et al.
2020 Water-related ecosystems mapping and assessment based on remote sensing techniques and geospatial analysis: The SWOS national service case of the Greek Ramsar sites and their catchments. Remote Sensing of Environment. Elsevier 245(111795) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.111795

Handwerk, Brian
 2009-2015 “Lost City” of Tanis. National Geographic. Web Article. https://on.natgeo.com/2AAzbij

Estrin, James
2011 The Classified Photos, The Art of Surveillance. New York Times. Web Article. https://nyti.ms/2Yvylvc

Masek, Jeffrey and Taylor, Michael.
N.d. Landsat 1, Landsat Science. NASA. Web Page. https://go.nasa.gov/2YxlKHN

Lem, Pola
2017 Peering through the Sands of Time: Searching for the Origins of Space Archaeology. NASA: Earth Observatory. https://go.nasa.gov/3dZfkYz

Parcak, Sarah
2019 Archaeology from Space: How the Future Shapes Our Past. New York. Henry Holt and Co. Kindle Edition.

Senatori, Bella
2017 The Importance of Anecdotes in Writing. Oregon, The Franklin Post. Web Article. https://bit.ly/3hjyJFL

Tucker, Abigail
2016 Space Archaeologist Sarah Parcak Uses Satellites to Uncover Ancient Egyptian Ruins. Smithsonian Magazine. Web Page. https://bit.ly/2UG6W8I

Weisberger, Mindy
2019 Code-Name ‘Corona’ : Earliest Spy-Satellite Images Reveal Secrets of Ancient Middle East. LiveScience. Web page. https://bit.ly/2C7wUM5

Murals and Graffiti: The Impact of a Pandemic.

The goals of our project was to tie the dynamic field that is archaeology to the murals and graffiti of a pandemic. Further into the project we wanted to tie the “political” statements that were hidden within the beautiful “street art” pieces that you yourself may have passed by while taking a stroll outside. The project was about how the murals and graffiti before the Covid-19 pandemic hint were different from the pieces that were painted after the pandemic, or during the pandemic being as we are currently still in the pandemic. How and what the Contemporary Archaeology of the art would indicate, and what was happening in the world at a time such as the one we are in now.

I was really interested in this project because I found the work of Contemporary Archaeologists really intriguing and what they can find and understand about a time through smaller pieces of information. I have always admired art in any form and I like how people use murals and graffiti to express what they feel or what people as a community feel. The pieces that I’ve seen throughout the streets of Seattle and even the smaller pieces I see throughout my own small community, I thought were always so moving in some way and if I’m being honest I’m almost always in awe of the people’s skills.

 I think this is relevant now more than ever because with the ever growing issues in today’s society clearly the people have had enough of a lot of the “political” issues that are prevalent in communities. One form of communication that people take to because they don’t think they have a fair say in anything is the form of graffiti or murals depicted on the sides of walls and on billboards. Messages within the art form are meant for the “higher” ups and for the community to see. Sang Bae sums it up pretty clearly when they say “mural painting was adopted as a channel of social expression for those who felt that they did not possess the agency to establish their own cultural representation and identity.” What I hope to gain as an individual from this project was the greater understanding of the importance of such an art form and what it truly represented. Tying that understanding to Contemporary Archaeology and what both topics could do with and for each other. It was a fascinating journey into the understanding of such an underrated art form.

What I learned from the articles and peer reviewed research papers that covered topics similar to the one that I have been talking about is that almost all of the time each mural or graffiti piece is saying something, and most of the time it’s because the people performing such an art form are misheard and treated with disregard. “These people, usually from ethnic enclaves and disenfranchised urban areas, painted on walls combining imageries adopted from their cultural roots with contemporary styles and inspiration to visually communicate their concerns, hopes, and culture as a collective community” (Bae, 2016) Through the COVID-19 pandemic a lot of things have changed drastically but somethings are still continuing such as street art. “One notable exception is street artists and graffiti artists, who have been busy incorporating COVID-19 into their work.” (Mitman, 2020) These reasons have shaped our ending project in many ways, we first thought of presenting an online presentation of our findings but then we thought that that wasn’t good enough for the information we are trying to have people connect with. We thought that since the age we live in is heavily based on an online presence we took to the instagram platform to present our work. The page of our instagram is linked down at the bottom. The research we did for this project really refined the work for me personally. I needed to really understand what aspects I was trying to connect to Contemporary Archaeology and how they connect to the political climate of today. The article by Sang Bae really helped me understand the significance of murals and graffiti and once I had an understanding of that It was easily understandable to tie the two topics together.

I think our project turned out better than we imagined. We successfully contributed a lot of “post” to our page and each provided a caption depicting what is being said or what we got from the art work. Although none of the posts are lengthy I think it’s actually okay, because it leaves the art piece up for interpretation for the viewers. One thing I’ll take away from this project is a different look on events that are happening around me and what impact I can have. Looking deeper and getting “educated” on events and finding out what really is being said in any situation. I’m definitely going to be mindful of what’s around me and what I leave behind.

The Instagram page for our project is linked here: https://www.instagram.com/muralsandgraffiti/

References

Bae, S. (2016). Balancing Past and Present: Reevaluating Community Murals and Existing Practices. Retrieved June 13, 2020, from https://repository.upenn.edu/hp_theses/600/

Mitman, T. (2020, May 19). Coronavirus murals: inside the world of pandemic-inspired street art. Retrieved June 13, 2020, from https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-murals-inside-the-world-of-pandemic-inspired-street-art-138487

“Unessay” Project

In “Better to be hot than caught” a Vendor in Mexico that specializes in migrant goods,

My unessay project surrounds the topic of migrant material culture. It looks further deep into what specific items people choose to bring or leave behind when leaving their home countries. Also, it looks into how and in what ways do certain items create a sense of home within a space. I was inspired to do my project on this topic because I am a daughter of refugees and I wanted to understand more about the realities of those leaving their home countries in hopes of building and creating something new elsewhere. This is relevant because researching this subtopic allows archaeologists to understand migrant values and their needs in relation to the global and political climate. Furthermore, by studying material culture, it allows archaeologists to understand the harsh realities migrants face and what their needs and desires are as a whole.

Through my research, I learned that the items people decide to bring with them upon leaving their home countries are all situation dependent. For the most part, people decide to bring with them things that are necessary to their survival like food and water. They also decide to bring with them sentimental items that hold no monetary value like pictures, keys, phone numbers, or protective amulets. These items along with some of the functional items that migrants bring help to evoke a sense of emotion and nostalgia. This is a term called memory objects. In relation to creating a sense of home, memory objects help to create feelings of nostalgia and memory but these items are not necessary to create these feelings. Things like music, art, and even flags can help create a sense of home. Over time, as culture changes and shifts, a sense of home changes as well due to a shift in values. Feelings that evoke “a sense of home” are dependent on many factors such as resettlement plans, presence of a diaspora, presence of cultural goods.

With my research findings, I decided to create a podcast that highlights all that I gathered from my sources. Creating a podcast helped me understand how the puzzles fit together by forcing me to highlight important details that I wanted to talk about and include. It also made me realize how much hard work goes into the podcasts that I love to listen to. I had to create a script to follow, record my audio, and then learn how to edit all within a span of a week. With my podcast, I decided to incorporate my research by asking questions that surround my topic and use the research material I gathered to answer the questions. It worked for me because it was simple and other methods I tried were overwhelming.

From the project, I took away a greater understanding and appreciation for the work archaeologists put into researching migrant material culture. Furthermore, it illuminated how much work still needs to be done to explore this topic. Finding academic sources was very difficult and surprising considering the global refugee crisis.

Sources:

De Leon, J. (2012). “Better to be hot than caught”: Excavating the conflicting roles of migrant material culture. American Anthropologist, 114(3), 477.

Digby, S. (2006). The Casket of Magic: Home and Identity from Salvaged Objects. Home Cultures, 3(2), 169-190.

Marschall, S. (2019). ‘Memory objects’: Material objects and memories of home in the context of intra-African mobility. Journal of Material Culture, 24(3), 253–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359183519832630

Parkin, D. (1999). Mementoes as Transitional Objects in Human Displacement. Journal of Material Culture, 4(3), 303–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/135918359900400304

Savaş, Ö. (2014). Taste diaspora: The aesthetic and material practice of belonging. Journal of Material Culture, 19(2), 185–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359183514521922

Shanaathanan, T. (2015). Commemorating home: Art as place making, an artist’s narration. Journal of Material Culture, 20(4), 415–428. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359183515605858

Archaeology of Immigration Project Overview

Our goal of this project is to address how have migrant journeys have greatly impacted contemporary archeology. We expanded our research to further include the dating techniques that were used on the bodies found of immigrants who have passed during their journeys. We were interested in this specific aspect of archeology because we wanted to strive for a greater understanding of immigration across borders since it is extremely relevant currently. Also, Alycia and I both studied this topic for our panel presentation so we wanted to dig even deeper into this current issue. It is crucial that we strive to humanize immigrants and shed light on the reality of the border because it is so often overlooked. We want to emphasize that the migrant stories and belongings hold great information regarding their journeys along with the rest of their archeological artifacts. In De Leon’s research, he “shines light on the inhumane and hypocritical way that we police our borders and show the devastating impact that our boundary enforcement system has on people’s lives” (Epilogue De Leon) which we strived to do as well.

Through our research, we found that one of the main concerns regarding current migrant issues is the governmental policies that were enacted in the past. For instance, the first significant law restricting immigration in the United States was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Here, the Chinese workers were blamed for declining wages and economic failures on the West Coast. This inevitably caused great discrimination aginst all Chinese migrants which makes their journey to immigrating to the United States much more difficult. With this knowledge, this undoubtedly impacted the research surrounding the rest of our project because we were able to put into perspective how much that impact has lasted until the modern-day. With Mexican migrants today, the prevention through deterrence policy continues to deter migrants to cross the border into the United States. 

At the beginning of developing our project, we came together to discuss what we thought were the most important impacts of migrant journeys on archeology. From our prior study of migrant journeys, integrating our research findings into our final Unessay project was fairly simple. Overall, we decided to create a main page covering the crucial overview of our research and having links of that to our research. By approaching it in this manner, we are able to utilize eye-catching photos, fonts, and colors to draw in the attention of an audience. We wanted to approach a sensitive topic in this format to hopefully keep our audience more engaged and intrigued in learning about an issue that affects so many lives today. 

There are so many essential takeaways from our project. However, one that will continue to make a lasting impact on me personally is how our government continues to approve policies to deter migrants from entering the “land of the free”. Also after viewing a high volume of photographs of migrant belongings from the trail through Jason De Leon’s study, I will never take for granted what I have now. Migrants are often wearing shoes that are not meant for a treacherous journey such as heeled boots and those migrants are often children.

Important Links

Final Unessay Project | Collective Journey by Jonathan Madison | Minnesota Immigrants | Extra Photos

Bibliography

History.com Staff. “Chinese Exclusion Act.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, August 24, 2018. https://www.history.com/topics/immigration/chinese-exclusion-act-1882.

Leon, Jason De. “The Land of Open Graves: Living and Dying on the Migrant Trail.” Oakland: University of California Press, October 23, 2015. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/lib/washington/reader.action?docID=2025610#

UMP (2014). “Skeletonized human remains and worn-out shoes in Nogales–Sasabe corridor”. Photograph for Research Gate. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Skeletonized-human-remains-and-worn-out-shoes-in-Nogales-Sasabe-corridor-Photograph-by_fig4_276914640